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Latest R3i Booklet and Slide kit
Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease
Up to date information about this rapidly emerging area of lipid research.
An essential resource for clinicians and researchers from leading experts.

This booklet provides a critical background to triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and their role in ASCVD, concluding with discussion of the trials – past and present – that have targeted elevated triglycerides to lower residual cardiovascular risk.
R3i Editorial
21 July 2022
Residual vascular risk in chronic kidney disease: new options on the horizon
Prof. Jean Charles Fruchart, Prof. Michel Hermans, Prof. Pierre Amarenco
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasingly recognized as a worldwide health concern. Whereas there has been a general decline in rates of death and disability-adjusted life years due to non-communicable diseases, such favourable trends do not exist for CKD.
With the escalating pandemics of obesity and diabetes, as well as aging societies, CKD now affects about 11-15% of people globally. While type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major risk factor for CKD, non-diabetic patients are also at risk. Thus, CKD represents an important unmet clinical need warranting urgent action. ...
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Landmark studies
19 July 2022
EMPA-KIDNEY trial stopped early due to evidence of efficacy
EMPA-KIDNEY ( Identifier: NCT03594110) was testing whether empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, prevents kidney disease progression or cardiovascular death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The trial was stopped on 16 March on the recommendation of the Independent Data Monitoring Committee due to evidence that empagliflozin is more effective than the placebo.
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Focus on...
19 July 2022
Elevated lipoprotein(a) promotes progression of vulnerable plaque
Among patients with advanced coronary artery disease, elevated serum levels of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] were associated with accelerated progression of the low-attenuation necrotic core of atherosclerotic plaques, as assessed by coronary computed tomography angiography.
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R3i Booklets / Slidekits Educational Library
Created by Prof. Jean-Charles Fruchart and R3i Members
More than 4.000 downloadable slides
Including printable extensive comments booklets
Recent publications
Pemafibrate in European patients on statin

Pemafibrate is already licensed in Japan for the management of hyperlipidemia and hypertriglyceridemia and has demonstrated a favourable benefit versus...
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Triglyceride-glucose trajectory associated with incident cardiovascular risk

This study provides new insights into the impact of the triglyceride-glucose index (TyG index) trajectory on cardiovascular risk. The TyG...
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Targeting triglycerides to reduce residual risk: what are the implications for Europe?

Already atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease poses a substantial disease burden in Europe, representing a cost of €210 billion per year for...
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Lipoprotein(a) and residual risk

There is extensive evidence from epidemiologic and genetic studies to support elevated lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] concentration as an independent cardiovascular risk...
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Top 5 Award for the Joint Residual Risk Reduction Initiative (R3i) Foundation/ International Atherosclerosis Society (IAS) Consensus Statement on Selective Peroxisome Proliferator‑Activated Receptor alpha Modulators (SPPARMα)
Cardiovascular Diabetology, the first journal to exclusively cover the link between diabetes and cardiovascular disorders (9.95 2-year impact factor), announced that this landmark paper is in the Top 5 of the most influential articles published.
Editors-in-Chief of Cardiovascular Diabetology Prof. E Fisman and Prof. A Tenenbaum commented: ‘On the occasion of Cardiovascular Diabetology’s 20th anniversary we are delighted to confirm that this is one of most influential articles for the journal. The publication will be showcased in the coming year...’
➤ Selective Peroxisome Proliferator–Activated Receptor Alpha Modulators (SPPARMα): New Opportunities to Reduce Residual Cardiovascular Risk in Chronic Kidney Disease?
➤ Residual vascular risk in diabetes: Will the SPPARMα concept hold the key?
➤ SPPARMα – the Lazarus effect
NEW MOVIE - Understanding how pemafibrate acts
What's Residual Risk?
Residual risk of vascular events persisting in patients at treatment goals according to current standards of care or failing to meet goals, including risk related to dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, systemic inflammation and unhealthy lifestyles.
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What is the Initiative?
The R3i, a worldwide, academic, multidisciplinary non-profit organization, aims to successfully address the excessively high risk of macro- and micro-vascular complications in patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia, characterised by elevated triglycerides and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and unaddressed by current standards of care.
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