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February 22, 2024
Recent Advances in Pharmacotherapy of Diabetic Retinopathy in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: PPARɑ agonists
Diabetic retinopathy is already the leading cause of vision loss among working-age adults, and the global burden is expected to escalate in the future. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha (PPARα) activation not only plays a key role in lipid and glucose metabolism and inflammation, but also multiple mechanisms underlying diabetic retinopathy.
Consequently, PPARα agonists have emerged as promising therapies for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy, as discussed in this webinar.
Chairman: Prof. Michel Hermans (Brussels)
Speaker: Prof. Alberto Zambon (Padova)
Latest R3i Booklet and Slidekit
PCSK9 as Therapeutic Target
This booklet/slidedeck, the second in the series, focuses on evidence from clinical trials with PCSK9-targeted therapeutics.

Elevated LDL cholesterol is established as causal for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Statin treatment, although effective in lowering LDL cholesterol, still leaves an unacceptably high residual cardiovascular risk, underlining the need for additional therapies.
R3i Editorial
8 January 2024
Targeting residual cardiovascular risk: what’s in the pipeline?
Prof. Jean Charles Fruchart, Prof. Michel Hermans, Prof. Pierre Amarenco
Individuals with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease remain at high risk of recurrent events.
Some of this risk may be ascribed to practical factors such as clinical inertia or cross-country disparities in access to effective lipid lowering therapies, as highlighted by the EU-wide DA VINCI study.
Across 18 countries in the European Union, less than half of secondary prevention patients received high intensity statin therapy for managing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), as recommended by clinical guidelines.
Inadequacies in guideline implementation are also common to other global regions. Additionally, strict reimbursement criteria or lack of funding limit access to newer treatments in some regions...
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Landmark studies
8 January 2024
First data with muvalaplin, an oral small molecule inhibitor of lipoprotein(a) formation
In this phase I trial, muvalaplin reduced lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels by up to 65% without any safety concerns, providing a basis for further clinical development.
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Focus on...
8 January 2024
Elevated lipoprotein(a) and coronary risk in acute coronary syndrome patients
This observational study in patients with coronary artery disease and elevated lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels, consistent with the population enrolled in the ongoing Olpasiran Trials of Cardiovascular Events and Lipoprotein(a) Reduction [OCEAN(a)]-Outcomes trial, provides valuable insights.
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R3i Booklets / Slidekits Educational Library
Created by Prof. Jean-Charles Fruchart and R3i Members
More than 6.000 downloadable slides
Including printable extensive comments booklets
Differentiating SPPARMα and fibrates
(PPARα agonists)
This booklet/slidekit discusses the evidence for the novel SPPARMα agonist, pemafibrate, that differentiates it as a distinct therapeutic class from traditional fibrates.
SSPARMα at the Crossroads of Obesity,
Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases
This library discusses the rationale and therapeutic opportunities for SPPARαMs in the future management of cardiovascular diseases, including the latest information on the role of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and their remnants in residual vascular risk.
PCSK9 and Atherosclerosis
Authors review the discovery and structure of PCSK9, PCSK9 levels in health and disease, PCSK9-drug interactions focusing on statin trials, current approaches to PCSK9 inhibition, and recent results from anti-PCSK9 mAb pre-clinical and clinical trials.
Other Slidekits
The R3i Educational Library also contains numerous commented slides concerning micro and macrovascular residual risk as well as the detailed analysis of the most important clinical studies related to it.
Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease
This booklet provides a critical background to triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and their role in ASCVD, concluding with discussion of the trials.
PCS9 as a therapeutic target
Insights from clinical trials
This booklet/slidedeck, the second in the series, focuses on evidence from clinical trials with PCSK9-targeted therapeutics.
Recent publications
Escalating cost of cardiovascular disease in Europe

In the most comprehensive analysis since 2006, cardiovascular disease (CVD) cost the European Union (EU) an estimated €282 billion in...
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New ESC guidelines

Four new European Society of Cardiology Guidelines were presented, covering acute coronary syndromes, endocarditis, cardiovascular disease in diabetes, and cardiomyopathies....
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Statin use and risk for recurrent stroke

In survivors of spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), statin use was associated with a lower risk of any stroke, including ischaemic...
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ORION-8: largest trial to date with inclisiran, targeting PCSK9

In the ORION-8 open-label extension trial, twice-yearly dosing with inclisiran adjunctive to statin therapy provided consistent low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)...
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Novel ANGPTL3 inhibitor

Phase I data were reported for ARO-ANG3, a novel RNA interference (RNAi) therapy that targets angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3). This...
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Preclinical data with novel APOC3 inhibitor

Another potential target for reducing triglycerides and atherogenic lipoproteins- apolipoprotein C3 (apoC3)- was the focus of preclinical studies with...
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More insights from REDUCE-IT

In a post hoc analysis, changes in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels and the ratio of EPA to arachidonic acid (AA)...
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Remnant cholesterol linked with chronic kidney disease severity

In a study from China, remnant cholesterol levels were associated with the severity of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in type...
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Lipoprotein(a) and cardiovascular risk in ACS: does the method for measuring matter?

Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], a risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes, is measured either using immunoassays reporting mass or molar concentration, or with...
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NEW The R3i International Steering Committee Meeting, Marrakech 2023
Reducing vascular complications of type 2 diabetes: New targets, new treatments
▷ Watch all 8 sessions Webcasts
➤ Selective Peroxisome Proliferator–Activated Receptor Alpha Modulators (SPPARMα): New Opportunities to Reduce Residual Cardiovascular Risk in Chronic Kidney Disease?
➤ Residual vascular risk in diabetes: Will the SPPARMα concept hold the key?
➤ SPPARMα – the Lazarus effect
NEW MOVIE - Understanding how pemafibrate acts
What's Residual Risk?
Residual risk of vascular events persisting in patients at treatment goals according to current standards of care or failing to meet goals, including risk related to dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, systemic inflammation and unhealthy lifestyles.
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What is the Initiative?
The R3i, a worldwide, academic, multidisciplinary non-profit organization, aims to successfully address the excessively high risk of macro- and micro-vascular complications in patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia, characterised by elevated triglycerides and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and unaddressed by current standards of care.
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